Desktop Line Following Robot

Controller ATmega8 (Atmel)
Line sensor Six photo-reflectors
Power supply
Two CR2032 lithium cells
(One is for controller, the other is for motors)
Motor Two micromotors for left wheel and right wheel
Dimensions 45(L), 33(W), 12.5(H) [mm]
Weight 15 grams (Body:8g, Cells:7g)
Performance 53 centimeters per second at oval course





Recently many kind of robot contests have being opened and some interesting reports of the challenge are found on the web. Line Following is a kind of robot contests which measures running speed on the line. I built a tiny line following robot which can run on the desk-only moving the key board aside will do. It is for only a personal toy as it is reduced in size less than one fifth compared to typical line following robots. I believe that it is suitable for home use in small houses and apartments.

About Line Follower

The line follower is a self operating robot that follows a line drawn on the floor. The basic operations of line following are as follows:

  • Capture line position with optical sensors mounted at the front end of the robot. Most competitors are using several photo-reflectors, and some leading contestants are using an image sensor for image processing. The line sensing procss requires high resolution and high robustness.
  • Steear robot to track the line with any steearing mechanism. This is just a servo operation, any phase compensation will be required to stabilize tracking motion by applying digital PID filter or any other servo argolithm.
  • Control speed according to the lane condition. Running speed is limited during passing a curve due to friction of the tire and the floor.


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